People wait to board a bus as people fleeing Ukraine arrive to Slovakia, at the border crossing in Vysne Nemecke, Slovakia, 28 February 2022. (Image: AAP/EPA/Martin Divisek)
Ukrainians at the border crossing in Vysne Nemecke, Slovakia, on Monday (Image: AAP/EPA/Martin Divisek)

Those in the battle-sieged Ukrainian cities of Kyiv, Kharkiv and Luhansk who haven’t fled are seeking refuge from bombs and missiles in crowded underground train stations, basements and bunkers.

Refugees are rushing to the neighbouring countries; thousands of women and children are attempting to catch trains out of Ukraine. More than 500,000 Ukrainians have left the country since Russia invaded five days ago. 

Ukrainians also face an ongoing risk: just 36% of the population is fully vaccinated against COVID. Rates of vaccine-preventable diseases are already high, with just 19% of the population vaccinated for diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis, and 42% for measles, mumps and rubella.