There has been much concern about the rise of patent trolls, the expenses of patent litigation, and the costs of patent transactions in the United States. The scholar James Bessen has been concerned that aggressive patent litigation has undermined innovation and entrepreneurship. The Supreme Court of the United States has responded to the perceived problems in respect of patent law with a string of significant patent rulings. However, the patent law reform process has been stalled in the United States Congress. While in corporate America, things are heating up.