This is probably the most exotic list we’ve ever compiled but we’d love you to come up with additions to this exiled leaders compilation and send it through to [email protected] Apologies but we can’t offer any more free subs with this as 10 was the limit ands we’ve reached that.
FRANCISCO XAVIER DO AMARAL: East Timor’s first head of state in 1975 was imprisoned by Indonesian authorities in Jakarta for 22 years. This was after he had fallen out with his Fretelin comrades who accused him of conspiring with the Indonesians. He was subsequently jailed and tortured by the East Timorese army and was then arrested by the Indonesians. He has since reconciled with the CNRT and is now part of the East Timorese government.
IDI AMIN: the national boxing champion killed his way to the top of Uganda but then fled after a Tanzanian invasion and still lives to this day in Saudi Arabia.
ALEXIUS III ANGELUS (1195-1203): fled Constantinople with most of the Treasury after the Crusaders threatened the walls of the capital. Although in cahoots with Alexius’s deposed and exiled brother ISAAC II, after taking the city the Crusaders decided to keep it for themselves (the so-called “Latin Empire” then hung on to Constantinople for another 57 years). The wily Venetians made off with most of the best loot, which is why St Marks is the best place to see Byzantine splendour today.
EMPEROR BAO DAI of Annam: abdicated in 1945 to give Ho Chi Minh a go. He did a Michael Jordan in 1949 coming back as Emperor of Vietnam. Following partition in 1954, he stayed on until RVN President Ngo Dinh Diem in 1955 offered him the “Paris option”, and arranged for him to live happily ever after with one or more of his concubines.
JEAN-BERTRAND ARISTIDE: was kicked out of Haiti by a coup in 1991.
RIFAT ASSAD: exiled brother of former Syrian president Hafaz Assad. Rifat threatened to challenge Hafez’s son and annointed successor Bashar Assad for the presidency following the death of the president in 2000. Rifat tried to stage a coup in 1983 and has been living in exile in France and Spain since.
PRESIDENT BAGAZA OF BURUNDI: deposed in September 1987 during a trip abroad by an army-led coup d’e51tat, instigated by Major Pierre Buyoya who formed a 31-member Military Committee for National Salvation. The majority party, UPRONA, was dissolved and the 1981 constitution was suspended. On 2 October Buyoya was sworn in as president, at the head of a new government. Bagaza subsequently went into exile in Libya.
BENAZIR BHUTTO: The former Pakistan Prime Minister is still hiding out in London after she was sentenced to 5 years jail for corruption in 1999.
JEAN-BODEL BOKASSA: President of the Central African Republic and subsequently self-proclaimed “emperor” of the “Central African Empire” during the 1970s; spent a quarter of his country’s GDP on his coronation and supposedly kept a refrigerator full of children to enhance the variety of his diet. Embarrassed then French President Valery Giscard d’Estaing by giving his wife a huge diamond (presumably before the contents of his refrigerator were widely known) but Giscard was stilling willing to provide him with safe exile in France after his overthrow.
SM BRUCE: not exactly an exile but this former Australian prime minister spent virtually all his life after politics in the UK and made the comment “there is no niche for me in Australia”?
ABDALA BUCARAM: the man who was president of Ecuador just long enough in 1997, is living comfortably in exile in Panama.
KING JUAN CARLOS OF SPAIN: Born in Rome in 1938 while the Spanish Royal Family were in exile. Following the end of the fascist rule after the death of Franco, was crowned king.
CHARLES II: was heir to the British throne but his father Charles I was executed so he fled to France and then returned in 1660 when Cromwell died.
CHARLES X: reigned over the Bourbons from 1824 till 1830 but abdicated in favour of his grandson following a revolt, and fled to England.
BONNIE PRINCE CHARLIES: spent his life fighting for the Jacobite Cause, even returning to London in 1750 and 1754 but could not find support in his goal to be King. Even the Highland Clans deserted him in the end irritated with his temper; his poor leadership, his lack of political tack and the harsh laws the English had opposed on them were blamed on Charlie. A charismatic but supremely selfish man he died where he was born, in Rome, on January 31st 1788 and so ended the chapter on the Stuarts quest to regain the Crown.
GRANDE DUCHESSE CHARLOTTE OF LUXEMBOURG: She was Head of State of Luxembourg 1919-64 but during World War II she was in exile in Montreal. She lived (1896-1985).
QUEEN CHRISTINA OF SWENDEN: reigned from 1632 till 1654 but was forced off the throne after she publically converted to Catholicism. She fled to Rome and became a great patron of the Yartz.
KING CONSTANTINE II OF GREECE: Fell out with the Greek Premier in 1967 during a national crisis and now lives in Italy.
BETTINO CRAXI: leftie Italian PM, died in exile in Tunisia a couple of years ago. Left Italy when Falcone and Borsellini brought down the mafia and something like one-third of the entire Italian parliament were indicted.
RICHARD CROMWELL: Lord Protector 1658-59 who inherited his job off his dad Oliver, but wasn’t up to the task. He fled to the continent for 20 years. After his return “Idle Dick” lived on in obscurity until 1712. In this time he got to see the son of the king his father had beheaded return from exile (Charles II), his brother in turn exiled (James II, for being far too Catholic) and his daughters (Mary II and Anne) die without producing a surviving heir (though Anne tried 17 times). If he’d lived another 2 years he would seen off the last of the Stuarts but instead the throne went to a pack of stuffy Germans (the Hanoverians – distantly related, but conveniently Protestant). A German line still rules England today, and only changed its name from Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to Windsor during WW1.
CARLOS SALINAS DE GORTARI: President of Mexico 1988-1995, left Mexico after the peso crisis of 1994-95 with various charges hanging over him (his brother was involved in some pretty dodgy dealings as well).
MICHAEL VII DUCAS (1071-1078 AD) and Nicephoris III Botaniates (1078-1081 AD): Two emperors who were in the wrong place at the wrong time. The Empire needed a warrior-emperor, someone who would wield an unmerciful sword against the empire’s ravening enemies. These two made excellent public servants. Both of them proved incapable of running the empire, and both of them ended up spending the rest of their days as monks in monasteries. Exile in Siberia would have been preferable.
JEAN-CLAUDE DUVALIER: the president of Haiti from 1971 until 1986, fled to France in 1986 after anti-government demonstrations overthrew his rule. His proclaimed ‘president for life’ status didn’t quite turn out the way he wanted it to, probably because he did not change much from his father, who was apparently noted for his violence and opression of the population.
EDWARD IV: was deposed from the British throne in 1470 and fled to France but returned in 1471 to reclaim the crown from his younger brother and the Earl of Warwick.
KING EDWARD V, who was 12 years old when his father died, became the King Of England for one month in 1483 before he was exiled by his uncle Richard Duke of Gloucester whom Titled himself Richard III. However, a subscriber has complained that he was never actually exiled out of the country so we’re consulting the history books on this one.
VICTOR EMMANUEL III: The King of Italy sucked up to Mussolini but then fled after the war and died in Egypt in 1947.
ETHELRED THE UNREADY: became King of England in 979, aged 10 but finally scarpered to Normandy in 1013.
KING FARROUQ OF EGYPT: deposed by Colonel Nasser in the 1950s and eventually died in Italy.
ALBERTO FUJIMORI: was born in Lima, Peru on 28/7/1938. He resigned from the presidency of Peru by fax on a state visit to Japan and claimed citizenship on account of his parentage. He spent 10 years as President of Peru but is now wanted on murder and corruption charges in Peru as he hides out in Japan.
ALAN GARCIA: Fujimori’s predecessor as President of Peru, whose legacy included some of the highest inflation rates ever recorded in history, also fled the country to escape various charges, though he recently returned to contest the election which was eventually won by the current president Alejandro Toledo.
GRIMALDI FAMILY: was exiled from Monaco in 1793 following the French revolution. Its members returned in 1815, following the Treaty of Paris, and have been its monarchs ever since.
HISSENE HABRE: former president of Chad, spent time in the slammer in Senegal on human rights/torture charges. He’s still there, as far as I know, waiting to be tried, somewhere.
FREDERIC CESAR DE LA HARPE: former exiled Swiss leader who, under the auspices of the French Revolutionary Government, established a Swiss state called the Helvetic Republic which lasted from 1798-1803.
HENRY IV (reigned 1399-1413) exiled for life by Richard II in 1399. Henry’s successful usurpation did not lead to general recognition of his claim (he remained unrecognised as King by Charles VI of France.
ERICH HONECKER: The East German Communist leader from 1971 till 1989 fled to Moscow after the collapse of his regime, but was returned to Germany in 1992 after the collapse of the USSR. The Germans put him on trial but in January 1993 he escaped to Chile (where, presumably, and not without cause, he thought ex-dictators could enjoy a quiet life). He died there the following year.
JOSE RAMOS HORTA: banned from the territory of East Timor – “an obscure footnote of the Portuguese colonial empire” – from 1970-71 for spreading subversive allegations against Portuguese rule. Was exiled from 1975 following the Indonesian invasion, which was precipitated by the departure of the colonial Portuguese power.
ADMIRAL MIKLOS HORTHY: Hungarian Dictator from 1920 until 1944. Allied his country to the Germans at the onset of the Second World War in exchange for the return of large slices of Slovakia and Romania which had been stripped from Hungary at the end of WWI. Tried to surrender to the Red Army when it invaded Hungary in 1944 but was arrested by the Germans instead. Was eventually captured by the Americans and spent the rest of his days (until his death in 1957) in Portugal.
IRENE (780-790): Rather than just act as Regent, Irene made herself co-ruler with her 10 year old son CONSTANTINE VI on the death of her husband, the Byzantine Emperor LEO IV. Little Constantine finally got fed up with Mama’s interference and had her exiled, but she made a stunning comeback, eventually blinding and deposing her own son so she could rule in her own right (792-802). In what makes an interesting historical “what if” there was diplomatic talk at the time of marrying her to the Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne, and linking the Eastern and Western parts of the old Roman Empire. Unfortunately, Charlemagne wasn’t all that keen, given Irene’s press in the West as a scheming, murderous, adulterous iconodulic whore.
JAMES II: fled to France after his overthrow in 1688.
POPE JOHN XIII: In 965 Pope John XIII was captured and imprisoned by enemies. He escaped and went into exile in Capua. In 966 he returned to Rome with the support of the Emperor Otto.
AHMAD TEJAN KABBAH: was kicked out of Sierra Leone by a military rebellion, the Nigerians helped put him back.
CHIANG KAI-SHEK: fled from China after the Communist victory in 1949, and invented his own country (Taiwan) which he ruled until 1975 (or thereabouts).
EMPEROR KARL I: the last Hapsburg Emperor of Austria-Hungary (following the death of the much-mustachioed Franz Josef in 1916). He was forced into exile in Switzerland in March 1919 and ultimately died in Madeira in 1922, aged only 34. His son Otto represents Bavaria in the European Parliament.
ALEXANDER KERENSKY: the socialist who assumed leadership of Russia following the May 1917 revolution, fled into exile after he was deposed by Lenin in November 1917 and eventuallyl lived out his days in sunny Sydney.
SIR JOHN KERR: after his memorable appearance at the 1977 Melbourne Cup Sir John Kerr resigned and left the country never to return. He died in the Mother Country in 1991.
ANNA KETHLY: In 1944-48 Vice-president of the Hungarian National Assembly, 1956 Minister of State and Minister of Social Affairs, 1956 Chief of Social Democratic Party and Leader-in-exile of the Party, in which she had been a leading figure before World War II. The party was member of the Socialist International. She lived (1889-1976, dead in Paris)
KIGELI V OF RWANDA: The king of Rwanda, Kigeli V Ndahindurwa, was overthrown by the Hutu-led forces and was driven into exile in 1961. Resident for a long time in Kenya, he has more recently lived quietly in Washington, DC.
AUNG SANG SUU KYI: Prime Minister-elect of Burma in 1989, but never allowed to assume that role by the military regime which in the 1950s deposed her father, Gen. Maung, and forced her and her family into exile from where she returned in 1988.
DALAI LAMA: booted from Tibet by China.
LOUIS XVIII: Became King of France in 1793 but was subsequently exiled in Britain until Napoleon’s death in 1815.
LOIUS XIX: was nominally the King of France for 20 minutes on August 2 1830, making it the shortest reign on record. After abdicating he spent the rest of his life in exile, dying in Austria 14 years later. He was succeeded by his younger brother HENRY V, the last of the Bourbons, who only lasted a little bit longer, clocking in with a nominal reign of a week.
KING DERMOT MACMURROUGH OF LEINSTER: In 1166 King Dermot MacMurrough of Leinster was forced to flee his kingdom after being defeated by Rury O’Connor, High King of Ireland. He sought the help of King Henry II, who allowed him to recruit an armed force. MacMurrough returned to Ireland in 1167 with a small force and won back some of his ancestral lands. He was followed in 1169 by an Anglo-Norman force which restored him to his kingdom.
POPE MARTIN I: Pope from 649 to 655 AD. He and the Byzantine emperor Constans II did not see eye to eye on (surprise, surprise) religion , and because the emperor thought he was still the boss in Italy (though supposedly not the Vatican), Constans had Martin carted off to Constantinople in chains. Martin still did not come around to Constan’s way of thinking, so it was a one-way all-expenses paid trip to the Crimea for Martin. Martin is the last pope to be considered a martyr.
HO CHI MINH: lived in exile from Vietnam for a time before returning to lead a successful overthrow of the colonial French in 1954
KING MOHAMMAD “IDRIS I” AL-SAOUSI: was holidaying in Turkey on September 1, 1969 when members of the Libyan armed forces led by Mu’ammar al-Qadhafi took control of the country and King Idris lived in exile in Egypt till his death on May 25, 1983.
KING MOHAMMED V OF MOROCCO: exiled in August 1953 after proclaiming Morocco as an independent country without the support of the French, returning in 1955.
FERDINAND MARCOS: fled the Phillipines and died of Cancer in Hawaii.
MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS: spent an extended period in the Tower of London as a guest of her cousin Elizabeth I before Bess finally succumbed to pressure to have her executed;
ROMANIA’S KING MICHAEL: currently living in exile in Switzerland, has expressed no interest in entering the Romanian political fray. President Iliescu in 1990 barred Michael from entering the country and two years later shortened a visit by Michael and his family after a million people turned out to welcome the Romanian monarch home. Now following a recent downturn in Iliescu’s political fortunes, he has invited Michael to an exhibition opening and dinner in Bucharest next month.
SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC: the brutal Serbian leader is now on trial in The Hague for genocide.
ARCHBISHOP MIKHAIL MAKARIOS: the first president of the Republic of Cyprus received his education in Greece and the United States. He was ordained in 1946 and in 1950 he became Archbishop and Primate of Cyprus. The British suspected Makarios of collaborating with anti-British terrorists, and exiled him. Makarios returned to Cyprus in 1959, and became Prime Minister. He then went into exile again in 1974 following a coup. Makarios remained head of state until his death in 1977. Throughout it all, Makarios maintained his dual role of head of state and head of church.
NAPOLEON: was exiled to St Helena where if he lasted until around 1825 (when if diehard loyalists are to believed he succumbed to arsenic poisoning by his British captors). Prior to this, after his first fall (1814) NAPOLEON was exiled to the Mediterranean Island of Elba (where he was insultingly styled “Emperor of Elba”), but soon had enough of that and returned in triumph to France and ruled for another Hundred Days before his final defeat at Waterloo in June, 1815.
NAPOLEON II: was proclaimed Emperor of France on the 22 June 1815 after Waterloo but as a 4 year old boy no one took much notice and he spent the remainder of his short life in Austria.
NAPOLEON III: was Napoleon’s weedy nephew, and after getting himself elected President of France proclaimed the Second Empire in 1852. He fled the country in 1870 following the disastrous Franco-Prussian War, which Napoleon III had whipped up as diversion to the restless public. Napoleon insisted on commanding in the field, but had none of his illustrious uncle’s genius (and being the most notorious pants-man in France was by then so riddled with venereal disease found it agony to sit on a horse). The campaign backfired horribly – he was captured at Sedan, and Paris itself was occupied by the Germans. Napoleon III spent the rest of his life in exile in Chiselhurst, an outer suburb of London.
MANUEL NORIEGA: Panamanian dictator, did some time in a US jail on drugs charges after being ousted by US marines during George Bush senior’s presidency
ABDULLAH OCALAN: not strictly a head of state but leader of the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) who fled his homeland seeking asylum in Italy, several African nations and finally Greece, who handed him over to Turkish authorities preventing further deterioration of Turkish-Greek relations. He is currently facing a death penalty but this has been postponed as Turkey attempts to obtain EU membership.
MULLAH MOHAMMED OMAR: The Taliban leader might still be in Afghanistan but he’s certainly been bombed out of office big time.
MOHAMMED REZA PAHLAVI: was the shah of Iran from 1941 to 1979, except for a brief period in 1953 when Prime Minister Muhammed Mosaddeq overthrew him. Mosaddeq was in turn overthrown with assistance from the U.S., and the shah was returned to power as a US ally. He greatly modernised Iran and established social reforms, many of which angered fundamentalist religious leaders. In 1979 the religious opposition, led by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, drove the shah into exile. Khomeini sought the capture of the shah, and when it was learned that he had been admitted into the United States for medical treatment, Iran’s response was the start of the hostage crisis at the U.S. embassy in Teheran. After dismissal from the hospital the Shah fled to Panama, then Egypt. He died on July 27, 1980, at the age of 60.
DOWAGER EMPRESS SHAHBANOU FARAH PAHLAVI: Widow of the Shah of Iran, she was acting head of the Imperial Family and acted as regent for son who became shah on his 20th birthday 31/10-80.
JUAN PERON: President of Argentina from some time in the 1940s until overthrown in 1955, lived in exile in Spain until he was brought back in 1973, whereupon he promptly died and the Presidency passed to his third wife Isabella who was almost as barmy as Evita.
KING PETER II OF YUGOSLAVIA: fled the Germans in 1941 and made his way via Athens, Jerusalem and Cairo to London where he joined numerous other governments in exile from Nazi occupied Europe. In November 1945 the monarchy was illegally abolished by Tito’s communists although King Peter II never formally abdicated.
AUGUSTO PINOCHET: The Chilean dictator was detained for 16 months in Britain as Spain sought to extradite him to Madrid to face trial over the death or disappearance of 3000 people during his dictatorship. But his failing health saw him released to Chile last year.
MARYAM RAJAVI: President of the Iranian government in exile in Paris since 1993. From 1985-92 Commander-in-Chief of Muhjedin-Army operating from Iraq. She is head of the 250 member exile-parliament. Half of its members are women and the exile-government is dominated by women.
PRINCE NORODOM RANNARIDH: (not to be confused with Prince Norodom Sihanouk, Rannaridh’s father). Was elected 1st Prime Minister of Cambodia in a power-sharing arrangement with 2nd Prime Minister Hun Sen. In 1997 Hun Sen staged a coup, and Rannaridh fled to Paris.
EMPEROR JUSTINIAN II RHINOTMETUS (685-695, 705-711 AD): Last of the Heraclean Dynasty. He managed to get up the noses of the byzantine aristocracy so much that they cut off his nose and sent him into exile on the steppes of Russia. But like an old fish that is on the nose, Justinian came back (with a strap-on nose made of gold), and boy was he pissed! The ensuing massacres eventually saw a revolution that led to a fatal nose-dive in Justinian’s fortunes.
RICHARD I (“the Lion Heart”): was kidnapped on his return from crusading in the Middle East by some continental prince while his brother John usurped the throne (and where would Robin Hood have been without that?).
EDWARD SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA (VIII): left England in 1936 and only returned for a couple of funerals, living in Bermuda and France in the meantime. His final return was in a coffin to be buried with the rest of his family (Hanover, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and now Battenberg- all good English surnames).
PRESIDENT MOBUTU SESE SEKO OF CONGO-ZAIRE: died in exile in Morocco in 1997 after 32 years of despoiling Congo-Zaire-Congo.
EMPEROR HAIL SELASSIE: the leader of Abyssinia (now Ethiopia) fled to Britain in 1935 when the Italians invaded but returned in 1941 when it was liberated.
YITZHAK SHAMIR: spent a lot of the 40s exiled to Eritrea by the British because he was a terrorist in the Stern Gang.
KING OF AFGHANISTAN ZAHIR SHAR: ruled for 40 years till 1973 when his cousin assumed power whilst the king was on holiday enjoying mud baths in Naples.
NAWAZ SHARIF: The former Pakistan Prime Minister was released from jail in November 2000 and went into exile in Saudi Arabia after receiving a presidential pardon from General Musharraf. He was charged with hijacking and tax evasion and original sentenced to life but paid a $10 million fine and still has a 21 year ban holding public office.
PRINCE NORODOM SIHANOUK: deposed from the Cambodian thrown by Pol Pot in the 1970s and fled to China before returning when the Khmer Rouge were defeated.
SIMEON II: the king of Bulgaria was booted out by the communists after World War II but is still around and became PM of Bulgaria last year.
GENERAL SUCHINDA: Former Prime Minister of Thailand who assumed that role after staging a coup as head of Thai Army in 1991. Called a general election in 1992 and despite not standing as a candidate, was appointed PM by his parliamentary cronies. A popular uprising with covert pressure being applied from abroad led to Suchinda fleeeing into self-imposed exile (not sure where). Thailand subsequently adopted a new, more coup-resistant constitution.
IVONKA J SURVILLA: Since 1993 President of the Belarussian Democratic Republic-in-Exile in Canada which was established in 1918.
NGUYEN VAN THIEU: the last President of South Vietnam, lived and recently died in the United States after the Communist victory in 1975.
JOSIP BROZ TITO: fled to Britain when the Germans invaded Yugoslavia but then returned to rule for four decades after the war.
LEON TROTSKY: one of the leaders of the Russian Revolution, elbowed aside by Stalin after Lenin’s death in 1924. Fled to Turkey in 1929, and eventually wound up in Mexico in 1937, where Stalin’s henchmen finally tracked him down and put an ice-pick through his head in 1940.
KING UMBERTO OF ITALY: succeeded after his father Victor Emmanuel III abdicated and was voted out when Italy became a republic in 1946 and his family has not set foot there since.
KAISER WILHELM II OF GERMANY: lingered on in Holland until the 1930s having survived the concerted campaign by no less than Australia’s own Billy Hughes to have him hanged after World War I.
QUEEN WILHELMINA: She was Dutch Head of State 1890-1948 and lived (1880-1962) and led the government in exile in London during the second world war.
P’U YI: the last Emperor of China, and Emperor of Manchuria for the Japanese until the end of World War II, when the Soviets arrived and took him off to the Soviet Union until he was sent back to China in 1950 to develop his gardening skills.
KING ZOG OF ALBANIA: took refuge in Britain when Italy invaded in 1940 and has a nice Australian because his son, Leka 1, married a shelia called Susan Cullen-ward, who was born on a sheep station at Cumnock, west of Orange in nsw. Cullen-ward got in a blue with DFAT about 5 years ago when they wouldn’t let her have “Queen Susani” on her Aussie passport. It was about this time Albanians rejected the rule of King Leka in a referendum. We think he was arrested upon his return from exile and originally left with dad Zog when he was two days old.